Gemstone Information
Product Information

Product Information

Gemstone Treatments and Enhancements 

Many gemstones are treated or enhanced to improve their durability or appearance, temporarily or permanently. Following is a list of widely accepted methods of treating or enhancing gemstones.

 

Assembled- made of multiple layers of materials or combinations of natural and or manufactured materials such as Opal triplets.

 

Coating – a surface enhancement applied to the gemstone to improve its appearance, deepen colour or contribute other special effects.

 

Heat- may be applied to alter clarity and colour. The results are permanent. Unless otherwise stated it is safe to assume that rubies, sapphires, tanzanite Citrine and pink topaz have all been heated.

 

Diffusion- the use of chemicals and high temperatures to produce colour and star-like inclusions (asterisms).

 

Irradiation- is the use of neutrons with the combination of heat treatment to alter the colour of a gemstone.

 

Resin Infused or Oiled- is the intentional filling of any surface breaking cavities of a gemstone with a wax, colourless oil, natural resin or unhardened manmade material into fissured gemstones. Emeralds come into this category.

 

Stabilizing or Bonding- the use of a colourless bonding agent, like plastic, with a porous gem to enhance the gem’s appearance and durability.

 

GEMSTONE QUALITIES AND CHARACTERISTICS

AMETHYST 

 

 Amethyst is the purple variety of quartz.  Because it has a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale, amethyst is treasured for its use in jewelry. However, it is still just 1/15 as hard as diamond. Amethyst is the birthstone for February.The name "amethyst" comes from the Greek and means "not drunken." This was maybe due to a belief that amethyst would ward off the effects of alcohol, but most likely the Greeks were referring to the almost wine-like colour of some stones that they may have encountered.Amethyst occurs in a continuum of primary hues from a light slightly pinkish violet to a deep grape purple. Amethyst may exhibit one or both secondary hues, red and/or blue. Due to its popularity as a gemstone, several descriptive terms have been coined in the gem trade to describe the varying colors of amethyst. "Rose de France" is usually a pale pinkish lavender or lilac shade.  The most prized color is an intense violet with red flashes and is called "Siberian," although gems of this color may occur from several locations other than Siberia, notably Uruguay and Zambia. In more recent times, certain gems (usually of Bolivian origin) that have shown alternate bands of amethyst purple with citrine orange have been given the name Ametrine. Because of the patchiness of the colour distribution in the crystals, Amethyst is often cut as brilliant round cuts to maximize the colour. The colour purple is traditionally the colour of royalty and amethyst has been used since the dawn of history to adorn the rich and powerful monarchs and rulers. Today, amethyst is a lovely and affordable gemstone that is fortunately available in a wide variety of cut and uncut stones. Amethyst is only one of several quartz varieties. Other varieties that form macroscopic (large enough to see) crystals are as follows:
  • Citrine is a yellow to orange gemstone variety that is rare in nature but is often created by heating Amethyst.
  • Milky Quartz is the cloudy white variety.
  • Rock crystal is the clear variety that is also used as a gemstone.
  • Rose quartz is a pink to reddish pink variety.
  • Smoky quartz is the brown to gray variety.
 Amethyst’s magical qualities are said to help maintain equilibrium in all situations and balance polarities.Amethyst’s healing functions are that it encourages self control, calms harsh emotions and brings stability, helps practical applications of imagination and aids meditation and sleep.

Amethyst, along with other gems, has served as both a birthstone and a lucky charm to those who follow the star signs and spirit guide. It prevails as the birthstone for Sagittarius (November 22- December 21) along with sapphire. Sagittarius has always been known as a free spirit and can be, at times, wild yet always wanting to explore. Amethyst is Sagittarius' aide in the search for new unexplored territories and also helps to pacify the wild ways when they get out of hand. Amethyst has also been accredited as a birthstone for Aquarius (January 20- February 18) due to its traditional standing as February's birthstone. Those who fall under Aquarius are typically very "humanly" with a goal to always understand and amethyst guides those of this sign to opening up to that which is mystical, psychic, supernatural and beyond knowledge. By the same reason of its traditional standing as February's birthstone, amethyst is also accredited as a birthstone for Pisces (February 19- March 20), but it is more commonly recognized as Pisces' lucky charm. Pisces embraces amethyst because of their tendency to skip from one level to the next and to go from one extreme to the other without any type of transition and amethyst, being a great crystal of easing and soothing transition, is the perfect charm. 

 

Amethyst is related to a specific day, time and to colour. This purple stone is the official crystal or gem for Wednesday. It has also been known as the gem most representative of the 8:00 am hour. The colour amethyst represents is the colour purple, which is also the colour for February.

 

Amethyst is the anniversary gemstone for the 6th year of marriage.

 

AMETRINE 

Ametrine gemstones are also known as Trystine or by its trade name as Bolivianite, are a naturally occurring variety of quartz. This gemstone is a mixture of Amethyst and Citrine with zones of purple and yellow or orange. Almost all commercially available Ametrine gems are mined in Bolivia, although there are deposits being exploited in Brazil and India.The colour of the zones visible within this gem are due to differing oxidation states of iron within the crystal. The different oxidation states occur due to there being a temperature gradient across the crystal during its formation.

Legend has it that Ametrine was first introduced to Europe by a conquistador's gifts to the Spanish Queen, after he received the Anahi mine in Bolivia as a dowry.

Ametrine is a very durable gemstone suited to a variety of jewellery uses. Most sizes and shapes are available but the colour contrast is most pronounced in sizes of over seven carats.

Ametrine is said to have all the metaphysical properties of both Amethyst and Citrine combined, as well its own unique properties; aids in meditation, relieves tension, disperses negativity and helps to eliminate prejudice.

Apatite

Apatite is a common mineral with a wide and attractive range of colours. In non-gem quality, very large crystals occur weighing up to several hundredweight. Clear gem quality crystals, though, are quite scarce and always small. It is too soft to be commonly used in jewellery, particularly in rings. It sometimes occurs with chatoyancy (cat's eye effect).

Colours
Colourless (white), pink, yellow, green, blue, and violet.

Hardness is 5.

Occurrences include Madagascar; Brazil; Mexico; Bancroft, Ontario; Germany and Russia.

 Apatite's name comes from a Greek word, apatao (apate, apatan), that means deception or to deceive. They called it a deceitful stone because its appearance has been confused with other stones. Even in its crystal state it has been mistaken for Tourmalines and Beryls. Magic Transforms static situations Healing Strengthens the physical structure of bones, teeth and muscle tissue.

Helps with personal expression and the flow of communication.

Encourages a flexible attitude.

Activates the intellect and deepens understanding.

Encourages subtle levels of awareness and perception.

Helps us to create structure.

Helps us to reorganise aspects of our lives that need attention.

 

Aquamarine 

From the light blue of the sky to the deep blue of the sea, aquamarines shine over an extraordinarily beautiful range of mainly light blue colours.

 

Aquamarine is one of our most popular and best-known gemstones, and distinguishes itself by many good qualities. It is almost as popular as the classics: ruby, sapphire and emerald. In fact it is related to the emerald, both belonging to the beryl family. The colour of aquamarine, however, is usually more even than that of the emerald. Much more often than its famous green cousin, aquamarine is almost entirely free of inclusions. Aquamarine has good hardness (7.5 to 8 on the Mohs scale) and a wonderful shine. That hardness makes it very tough and protects it to a large extent from scratches. Iron is the substance which gives aquamarine its colour, a colour which ranges from an almost indiscernible pale blue to a strong sea-blue.

 

Madagascar is the historical source of aquamarine, but is no longer important. A medium dark blue is the colour typical of stones that came from that area. Brazil is probably the most prolific supplier of aquamarine today. The natural colour of Brazilian gems leans toward bluish-green.

Other sources of aquamarine are the African countries of Tanzania, Kenya and Nigeria, the island of Sri Lanka, Afghanistan and Russia.

 

It is the birthstone of a person born under the zodiac sign of Pisces (Fish) from Feb. 19 - March 20.

 

Magic

 

Protects from harm.

Promotes safe travel, especially at sea.

 

Healing

 

Boosts the immune system, balances the thymus and throat chakras.

Clears stagnant emotions.

Encourages optimism.

Enables creative expression of ideas.

Encourages unique skills.

Helps you to find inspiration and enables the imagination to flow, usually leading to practical outcomes.

  Carnelian  

Carnelian, sometimes spelled cornelian, is a red or reddish-brown variant of chalcedony. The word is derived from the Latin word meaning horn, in reference to the flesh colour sometimes exhibited. It was used widely during Roman times 2,000 years before the present era to make signet or seal rings for imprinting a seal with wax on correspondence or other important documents. Hot wax does not stick to Carnelian.

Carnelian is the zodiac birthstone of Virgo.

Hardness

6.5 - 7.0.

Occurrence Worldwide.

Magic

A popular stone in carved amulets, rings and seals, worn for courage, confidence and protection from harm.

Healing

Enhances creativity

Repairs subtle bodies

 

Chalcedony

  Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica, composed of very fine intergrowths of the minerals quartz and moganite. These are both silica minerals, but they differ in that quartz has a trigonal crystal structure, whilst moganite is monoclinic. Chalcedony has a waxy lustre, and may be semitransparent or translucent. Its colour is usually white to gray, greyish-blue or a shade of brown ranging from pale to nearly black. Other shades have been given specific names: A clear red chalcedony is known as carnelian or sard. A green variety coloured by nickel oxide is called chrysoprase. Prase is a dull green. Onyx has flat black and white bands. Plasma is a bright to emerald-green chalcedony that is sometimes found with small yellow spots of jasper. Heliotrope is similar to plasma, but with red spots of jasper, hence its alternative name of bloodstone. Chalcedony with concentric banding is known as agate. Flint is also a variety of chalcedony.  The term chalcedony is derived from the name of the ancient Greek town Chalkedon in Asia Minor, in modern English usually spelled Chalcedon, today the Kadıköy district of Istanbul. 

The Romans prized chalcedony as seals and the Victorians carved them into an endless array of cameos and intaglios. Chalcedony was used in Renaissance magic for health and safety. In all ages chalcedony has been the stone most used by the gem engraver, and many coloured varieties are still cut and polished as ornamental stones.
Chalcedony is one of the gemstones that used in commesso, also called florentine mosaic. Commesso is a technique of fashioning pictures with thin, cut-to-shape pieces of brightly coloured, semiprecious stones, developed in Florence in the late 16th century.

  Shopping guide: Chalcedony is an inexpensive stone. It is one of the best wearing stones on the market. Chalcedony also one of the most collected gemstones today.  

Deposits: Chalcedony is found in many parts of the world, but the most prized Chalcedony are from India, Madagascar, Burma, Brazil, Mexico & USA.

Healing 

 This beautiful stone is believed to banish fear, hysteria, depression, mental illness and sadness. Chalcedony reduces fever. Wearing chalcedony is believed to be excellent for eyes.
Mystical power

Chalcedony prevents from touchiness and melancholy. Worn by many to promote calm and peace. Chalcedony also stimulates creativity.



 

 CITRINE  Citrine, also called Citrine Quartz is an amber-colored gemstone. It is a form of quartz with ferric iron impurities, and is rarely found naturally. Most commercial citrine gemstones are in fact artificially heated Amethyst or Smoky Quartz. Brazil is the leading producer of naturally mined citrine gems, with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. It has a hardness of 7. Citrine can be easily scratched. Citrine often permanently changes colour if left in the sunlight for several hours. Most Citrine on the market is heat treated amethyst. Citrine is found in Brazil, Madagascar, Spain, USA and the former USSR.

November Birthstone: Modern and Traditional Birthstone

Virgo (Aug 23-Sep 22): Planetary Stone

Citrine is the anniversary gemstone for the 17th year of marriage.

  Citrine is said to help one connect with Spirit. Citrine is given as a symbol of hope, youth, health, and fidelity.

The name "Citrine" is derived from the French word for lemon.

Healing

The Citrine is a wonderful gemstone. It helps to manifest your goals. Also keeps one cheerful. It attracts abundance and personal power. Is one of the only gemstones which dissipates negative energy but instead dissipates and transmutes it and never requires cleansing or clearing.  Citrine is known as a “merchant’s stone”, to be placed in cash registers or where business is conducted to not only attract positive wealth but to maintain it.  Citrine stimulates the body's own healing energies. It is good for helping to elevate self-esteem and is good for centering. Can help one's memory and can aid in problem solving. Gives one confidence and self-discipline. Excellent for opening the 3rd chakra. Citrine can not hold negative vibes. A good stone for clearing the auras.

 

EMERALD 

Emerald is a variety of the mineral beryl, colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Beryl has a hardness of 7.5 - 8 on the 10 point Mohs scale of hardness. Most emeralds are highly included, so the brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor.

The lively luminosity of its colour makes the emerald a unique gemstone. However, really good quality is fairly rare, with inclusions often marring the evenness of the colour. Fine inclusions, however, do not by any means diminish the high regard in which it is held. On the contrary: even with inclusions, an emerald in a deep, lively green still has a much higher value than an almost flawless emerald whose colour is paler.

The name emerald comes from the Greek 'smaragdos' via the Old French 'esmeralde', and really just means 'green gemstone'. Innumerable fantastic stories have grown up around this magnificent gem. The Incas and Aztecs of South America, where the best emeralds are still found today, regarded the emerald as a holy gemstone. However, probably the oldest known finds were once made near the Red Sea in Egypt. These gemstone mines, already exploited by Egyptian pharaohs between 3000 and 1500 B.C. and later referred to as 'Cleopatra's Mines', had already been exhausted by the time they were rediscovered in the early 19th century.

Emeralds come in many shades of green and bluish green. There is a wide spectrum of clarity, dependent on the inclusions and fractures in the crystal. Today, many emeralds are enhanced with colourless oils or resins. This is a general trade practice, but it does have the consequence that these green treasures react very sensitively to inappropriate treatment. For example, they cannot be cleaned in an ultrasonic bath. The substances that may have been used by the cutter during his work, or applied subsequently, seal the fine pores in the surface of the gem. Removing them will end up giving the stone a matt appearance. For this reason, emerald rings should always be taken off before the wearer puts his or her hands in water containing cleansing agent.

Colombian Emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire. Some of the rarest emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo, Coscuez, and Chivor. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries, such as Zambia, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and Russia.

The value of an Emerald depends on cut, colour, clarity, and carat. The characteristics of Colombian emeralds set the highest standards of quality.

Emerald is regarded as the traditional birthstone for May, and for commemorating the 20th and 35th wedding anniversaries as well as the traditional gemstone for the astrological signs of Taurus and Cancer.

The magnificent green of the emerald is a colour which conveys harmony, love of Nature and elemental joie de vivre. The human eye can never see enough of this unique colour. Green is perceived as fresh and vivid, never as monotonous. And in view of the fact that this colour always changes somewhat between the bright light of day and the artificial light of a lamp, emerald green retains its lively vigour in all its nuances.

Emeralds from Zimbabwe are among the oldest gemstones anywhere in the world. They were already growing 2600 million years ago, whilst some specimens from Pakistan, for example, are a mere 9 million years old.

The magic of Emeralds is that they

reveal the truth, so encourages honesty

bolster love, friendship and attachment

associated with prophecy and foresight

Emeralds healing functions:  

speeds cleansing and purifying processes

assuages hidden fears and anxieties

effective as a focus for meditation

 

FLUORITE  

Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is a mineral. Fluorite may occur as a vein deposit, especially with metallic minerals, where it often forms a part of the gangue (the worthless "host-rock" in which valuable minerals occur) and may be associated with galena, sphalerite, barite, quartz, and calcite. It is a common mineral in deposits of hydrothermal origin and has been noted as a primary mineral in granites and other igneous rocks and as a common minor constituent of dolostone and limestone. Fluorite has a hardness of 4.Fluorite is a widely occurring mineral which is found in large deposits in many areas. Notable deposits occur in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, England, Norway, Mexico, and Ontario in Canada. Large deposits also occur in Kenya in the Kerio Valley area within the Great Rift Valley.

Formerly has a wide range of colours including yellow, blue, pink purple and green. It is an interesting and beautiful stone because often more than one colour occurs in a single stone. The ancient Egyptians used fluorite to carve statues and scarabs, the Chinese have used it in carvings for over 300 years. In the 18th century, fluorite was powdered in water to relieve the symptoms of kidney disease.

Fluorite is said to absorb and neutralize negative vibrations. It makes one more receptive to the vibrations of other stones. Fluorite should be kept in every room of the home. Fluorite is known as the "Genius Stone".

Fluorite may be used with other stones. It helps to open the way for the power of other stones to be effective. It can be used as a meditation stone to help energize the body and raise the power of concentration.

Healers use it to help with ulcers as well as the respiratory tract by stimulating cell regeneration in these areas. It fortifies bones, improves arthritic or other joint ailments. It can be laid directly on the body.

Magic

Encourages innovation and invention

Helps in planning and coordinating resources

Healing

Supports healthy bone tissue and physical structures of all organs

Helps us to master physical skills and improve dexterity and balance

Encourages a sense of self-worth

Facilitates assimilation of new ideas and understanding of fine levels of awareness

 

GARNET 

 
Garnet is a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. Garnets are most often seen in red, but are available in a wide variety of colors spanning the entire spectrum. The name "garnet" comes from the Latin granatus ("grain"), possibly a reference to the Punica granatum ("pomegranate"), a plant with red seeds similar in shape, size, and color to some garnet crystals.Six common varieties of garnet are recognized based on their chemical composition. They are pyrope, almandine, spessartite, grossular (varieties of which are hessonites or cinnamon-stone and tsavorite), uvarovite and andradite. The garnets make up two solid solution series; 1. pyrope-almandine-spessarite and 2. uvarovite-grossular-andradite. Garnets are found in many colors including red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, brown, black, pink and colorless. The rarest of these is the blue garnet, discovered in the late 1990s in Bekily, Madagascar.Because the chemical composition of garnet varies, the atomic bonds in some varieties are stronger than in others. As a result, the mineral shows a range of hardness on the Mohs scale of about 6.5 to 7.5. The harder varieties, like almandite, are often used for abrasive purposes.

Almandine - sometimes called Almandite, is the modern gem known as Carbuncle (though originally almost any red gemstone was known by this name). The term "carbuncle" is derived from the Latin meaning "little spark." The name Almandine is a corruption of Alabanda, a region in Asia Minor where these stones were cut in ancient times. The deep red transparent stones are often called precious garnet and are used as gemstones (being the most common of the gem garnets). Almandine occurs in metamorphic rocks like mica schists, associated with minerals such as Staurolite, Kyanite, Andalusite, and others. Almandine has nicknames of Oriental garnet, Almandine Ruby, and Carbuncle.

Pyrope from the Latin pyropos means similar to fire. The color of pyrope varies from deep red to almost black.A variety of pyrope from Macon County, North Carolina is a violet-red shade and has been called Rhodolite, from the Greek meaning "a rose." Pyrope has trade names some of which are misnomers; Cape ruby, Arizona ruby, California ruby, Rocky Mountain ruby, and Bohemian garnet from the Czech Republic. Another intriguing find is the blue color-change garnets from Madagascar, a Pyrope Spessartine mix. The color of these blue garnets is not like sapphire blue in subdued daylight but more reminiscent of the grayish blues and greenish blues sometimes seen in Spinel.

Spessartite or spessartine is manganese aluminium garnet. Its name is derived from Spessart in Bavaria. It occurs most often in granite pegmatite and allied rock types and in certain low grade metamorphic phyllites. Spessartite of a beautiful orange-yellow is found in Madagascar (see Mandarin garnet). Violet-red Spessartites are found in rhyolites in Colorado and Maine.

Andradite - is a calcium-iron garnet and is of variable composition and may be red, yellow, brown, green or black. The recognized sub varieties are topazolite (yellow or green), demantoid (green) and melantite (black). Andradite is found both in deep-seated igneous rocks like syenite as well as serpentines, schists, and crystalline limestone. Demantoid has been called the "Emerald of the Urals" from its occurrence there, and is one of the most prized of garnet varieties. Topazolite is a golden yellow variety and melanite is a black variety.Grossular is a calcium-aluminium garnet though the calcium may in part be replaced by ferrous iron and the aluminium by ferric iron. The name grossular is derived from the botanical name for the gooseberry, grossularia, in reference to the green garnet of this composition that is found in Siberia. Other shades include cinnamon brown (cinnamon stone variety), red, and yellow. Because of its inferior hardness to zircon, which the yellow crystals resemble, they have also been called hessonite from the Greek meaning inferior. Grossular is found in contact metamorphosed limestones with vesuvianite, diopside, wollastonite and wernerite.One of the most sought after varieties of gem garnet is the fine green grossular garnet from Kenya and Tanzania called tsavorite. This garnet was discovered in the 1960s in the Tsavo area of Kenya, from which the gem takes its name.Uvarovite is a calcium chromium garnet. This is a rather rare garnet, bright green in colour, usually found as small crystals associated with chromite in peridotite, serpentinite, and kimberlites. It is found in crystalline marbles and schists in the Ural Mountains of Russia and Outokumpu, Finland.MagicGets projects under wayProvides fortitude and courageHealing The colour will tend to determine the focus of its use for healing. However, all garnets speed up healing processes. Red garnets are powerfully energizing – use only for short periods. Green garnets are gentler, but still stimulate. All garnets bring a fiery, warming energy to fight cold, sluggish or damp disease states.

Iolite

The name "iolite" comes from the Greek word for violet. Another old name is dichroite, a Greek word meaning "two-colored rock", a reference to cordierite's strong pleochroism. Gem quality iolite varies in color from sapphire blue to blue violet to yellowish gray to light blue as the light angle changes. Iolite is found in Sri Lanka, Burma, Australia's Northern Territory, Namibia, Brazil, Tanzania, Madagascar, Connecticut, and the Yellowknife area of the Northwest Territories of Canada.

It has a hardness of 7 to 7.5 on the Moh's scale.

 

The Iolite gemstone possesses a very important feature that is called pleochroism. This property possessed by a few other gemstones too, causes the gemstone to show different colours when viewed from different angles and sides. When viewed from one side the Iolite gemstone will show a gorgeous bluish violet colour and when viewed from the other side, appears very pale colour and almost colourless.

 

It is believed that the Vikings used the Iolite gemstone to help them navigate on the high seas when very far away from the coastline. Looking through the gemstone at a certain angle, the Vikings could determine the exact position of the sun and never got lost when on the high seas.

 

Magic:              Enables us to consider a situation from all angles

                        Combines science and magic, logic and imagination

 

Healing:            Activates the nervous and endocrine systems

                        Enhances feelings of sympathy and empathy – both in us for others and

                        in others for us.

                        Helps us to decide when other people do or do not need our help.

                        Encourages understanding and acceptance of the duality of existence.

 

 

 

Opal The mineraloid opal is amorphous SiO2·nH2O, hydrated silicon dioxide, the water content sometimes being as high as 20% but is usually between three and ten percent. Opal ranges from clear through white, gray, red, yellow, green, shore, blue, magenta, brown, and black. Of these hues, red and black are the rarest and most expensive, whereas white and green are the most common; these are a function of growth size into the red and infrared wavelengths—see precious opal. Common opal is truly amorphous, but precious opal does have a structural element. The word opal comes from the Latin opalus, by Greek òpalliòs, and is from the same root as Sanskrit upálá[s] for "stone", originally a millstone with upárá[s] for slab. Opals are also Australia's national gemstone.

Australia is the classical Opal country and today is the worldwide most important supplier of Fine Opals. Almost 95 per cent of all Opals come from Australian mines. The remaining five per cent are mined in Mexico, and in Brazil’s north, also in the US states of Idaho and Nevada, but recently the stones have also been found in Ethiopia and in the West African country of Mali.

Due to the differing percentage of water, Opals may easily become brittle. They always contain water – usually between 2 and 6 per cent, but sometimes even more. Thus if stored too dry or exposed to heat over a longer period of time, Opals will show fissures and the play of colour will become paler. Therefore, Opal jewellery should be worn as often as possible, for then the gemstone will receive the needed humidity from the air and from the skin of its wearer.

Opals are not very hard: they only achieve 5.5 to 6 on the Mohs’ scale. Therefore they appreciate a protective setting. In earlier days Opal’s sensitive surface was often oiled, but today also sealing them with colourless artificial resin has become quite popular.


The history of Australian Opal began actually millions of years ago, when parts of Australia were covered by a vast inland sea, and stone sediment was deposited along its shoreline. When the water masses flooded back, they flushed water containing silica into the resulting cavities and niches in the sedimentary rocks, and also the remains of plants and animals were deposited there. Slowly the silica stone transformed into Opal, for basically Opals are simply a combination of silica and water. Or, to be more precise: Opals are a gel from silica, with varying percentages of water.

Opal is a mineraloid gel which is deposited at relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock, being most commonly found with limonite, sandstone, rhyolite, and basalt.

All of Nature’s splendour seems to be reflected in the manifold opulence of fine Opals: fire and lightnings, all the colours of the rainbow and the soft shine of far seas. Australia is the classical country of origin. Almost ninety-five per cent of all fine opals come from the dry and remote outback deserts.

Numerous legends and tales surround this colourful gemstone, which can be traced back in its origins to a time long before our memory, to the ancient dream time of the Australian aborigines. It is reported in their legends that the creator came down to Earth on a rainbow, in order to bring the message of peace to all the humans. And at the very spot, where his foot touched the ground, the stones became alive and started sparkling in all the colours of the rainbow. That was the birth of the Opals.

The group of fine Opals includes quite a number of wonderful gemstones, which share one characteristic: they shine and sparkle in a continually changing play of colours full of fantasy, which experts describe as “opalising”. Depending on the kind, place of occurrence, and colour of the main body, we differentiate Dark or Black Opal, White or Light Opal, Milk or Crystal Opal, Boulder Opal, Opal Matrix, Yowah Nuts from Queensland – the so-called “picture stones“, and also Mexican and Fire Opal. Opal variations are practically unlimited. They all show in their own special way that unique play of colours – except for Fire Opal, which due to its transparency, however, is nevertheless also considered a Fine Opal specimen. If Opals are lacking the typical play of colours, they are simply named “Common Opal”.

For ages people have believed in the healing power of Opal. It is reported to be able to solve depressions and to help its wearer find the true and real love. Opals are supposed to further enhance the positive characteristics for people born under the zodiac sign of Cancer. Black Opal is recommended to those born under Scorpio, and Boulder Opal is the lucky stone for Aries.

The fantastic colour play of Opal reflects changing emotions and moods of people. Fire and water, the sparkling images of Boulder Opal, the vivid light flashes of Black Opal or the soft shine of Milk Opal – striking contrasts characterise the colourful world of this fascinating gemstone. Maybe this is the reason why it depends on our daily mood which Opal we prefer. Opals are like human emotions: you always experience them different and anew.

Andean Opal (pale blue, turquoise and green)

 

Soothes the emotions

Helps to ease relationship difficulties

 

Cherry Opal (pink, red and orange)

 

Helps to regenerate tissue and blood

Gently increases energy levels

Dark Opal (brown, black or grey-blue)

 

Activates and balances the sacral chakra

Eases premenstrual tension/menstrual cramps

  

Fire Opal (rich red-orange)

Encourages recovery after emotional upset, “burn out” or “draining” situations.

Precious Opal (clear with rainbow colours)

Helps to stabilize mood swings

Eases the flow of life-energy through the subtle body

 

Common Opal (no opalescence or fire: can be milky white, grey, green, purple, brown or clear).

 

Provides more gentle energy than other opals

Stabilizes the emotions

Increases sense of self-worth

 

White Opal ( milky white with traces of other colours).

 

Energizes the crown chakra

Brings clarity of mind

 

Dendritic or Tree Opal (common opal with impurities that form moss or tree-like patterns)

 

Strengthens the ability to organise

Releases the constriction in the lungs, nerves and blood vessels

 

 

Peridot 

Peridot (pronounced pear-uh-doe) is a French word derived from the Arabic faridat, which means gem. The stone ranges in colour from light yellow-green to the intense bright green of new grass to olive. Peridot has a hardness of 6.5 - 7.

 

Peridot, also called precious olivine, is a gem-quality transparent green olivine. The crystals of Peridot have a vitreous lustre and conchoidal fracture. Gem-quality olivine is a mineral that composes a lot of the earth's mantel, the layer below the crust. It is also common in basalts on the moon. Chrysolite is a golden yellow variety of Peridot.

 

Peridot has been adored since ancient times and has been valued for centuries. People in the Middle Ages wore Peridot to gain foresight and divine inspiration. Legend has it that pirates fevered Peridot to protect them against evil. Peridot was greatly prized by Egyptian Kings. Some of Cleopatra's emeralds were in fact Peridots.

 

This beautiful stone is worn or carried for general healing purposes. Peridot increases strength & physical vitality. Peridot protects against nervousness and aids in healing hurt feelings. It helps liver & adrenal function. Peridot is also thought to protect lungs, sinuses, and wrists from illness and injury.


Peridot is used to help dreams become a reality. This very popular stone is believed to attract love. The deep green hue of the Peridot also suggests a connection in wealth-attracting. Peridot calms a raging anger. It is also useful to dispel negative emotions, and it is believed to promote sleep when worn to bed.

 

Peridot is found in Australia, Brazil, China, Egypt, Burma, Pakistan, Norway, and USA (Arizona, Colorado, Hawaii, and New Mexico).
Much of the today's Peridot comes from Arizona. Very large crystals are found in the Mogok district of Myanmar and in the Minas Gerais in Brazil.


Peridot has been mined from St John's Island in the Red Sea for over 3500 years. In 1994, an exciting new deposit of Peridot was discovered in Pakistan, and these stones are among the finest ever seen.

 

Magic:              Symbolizes the vibrant energy of the natural world.

                        Provides protection from harmful forces and influences.

 

Healing:            Removes toxins from the body

                        Restores emotional balance

                        Overrides unwanted patterns of thought

                        Enables us to let go of the past

                        Helps to strengthen personal identity

 

Prehnite

 Prehnite is a phyllosilicate of calcium and aluminium with the formula: Ca2Al (AlSi3O10)(OH)2. Limited Fe3+ substitutes for aluminium in the structure. Prehnite crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system. It is brittle with an uneven fracture and a vitreous to pearly lustre. Its hardness is 6-6.5, its specific gravity is 2.80-2.90 and its color varies from light green to grey or white. It is translucent.Though not a zeolite, it is found associated with them and with datolite, calcite, etc. in veins and cavities of basaltic rocks, sometimes in granites, syenites, or gneisses. It is an indicator mineral of the prehnite-pumpellyite metamorphic facies. It was first discovered in South Africa by Colonel Hendrik Von Prehn, an early Dutch governor of the Cape of Good Hope colony. Prehnite was the first mineral to be named after a person.

Colour is usually a pale green to a yellowish grass green, also gray, white or colourless.

 Occurrences include the type locality of Cape of Good Hope, South Africa as well as Connecticut; Pennsylvania; Patterson, New Jersey and Centreville, Virginia, USA; Bombay, India; Harz Mountains, Germany; Austria; Scotland; Copper Valley, Namibia; Jeffery Quarry, Asbestos, Canada; China; New South Wales, Australia and France. 

Magic

 

Unlocks the unconscious mind

Melts boundaries of time and space, making it easier to access psychic skills such as clairvoyance, remote viewing and channelling.

 

Healing

 

Eases nervous indigestion

Soothes and calms the mind and emotions

Helps to diffuse cute worry

 

 

Quartz

 Quartz belongs to the rhombohedral crystal system. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramids at each end. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned, distorted, or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape, or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void, but because the crystals must be attached at the other end to a matrix; only one termination pyramid is present. A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape, lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward.

Quartz goes by an array of different names. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and the microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification). Chalcedony is a generic term for cryptocrystalline quartz. The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque, while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline.

Purple to violet - Amethyst ( Amethyst can also be green )

Yellow to orange - Citrine

Ametrine combines the appeal of both Amethyst and Citrine, purple and yellow in one gemstone.

Different colours and types of chalcedony, from agate to chrysoprase, have grown in popularity with the growing appreciation for carved gemstones and artistic cutting and carving.

 And unusual specialities like druzy quartz, with its surface covered by tiny sparking crystals, and rutilated quartz, which has a landscape of shining gold needles inside it, are adding variety and nature's artistry to unusual one-of-a-kind jewellery.

Rose quartz
The pale pink colour of quartz, which can range from transparent to translucent, is known as rose quartz. The colour is a very pale and delicate powder pink. Transparent rose quartz is very rare, and usually so pale that it does not show very much colour at all except in large sizes. Translucent rose quartz is much more readily available, being used for beads, cabochons, carvings, and architectural purposes.

Smokey quartz
Smoky quartz is a brown transparent quartz that is sometimes used for unusual faceted cuts. The commercial market is limited, because there is a rather limited demand for brown gemstones. This variety was sometimes known as smoky topaz in the past, though the term is incorrect and misleading.

 Tiger's eye
Tiger's eye quartz contains brown iron which produces its golden yellow colour. Cabochon cut stones of this variety show the chatoyancy (small ray of light on the surface) that resembles the feline eye of a tiger. The most important deposit is in South Africa, though tiger's eye is also found in Western Australia, Burma (Myanmar), India and California.

Rock crystal
The transparent, colourless variety of quartz is still known as rock crystal. Long ago, people believed that rock crystal was a compact form of ice: in fact 'crystallos' means 'ice'. The best rock crystal has the clarity and shimmer of water. Although colourless quartz is relatively common, large flawless specimens are not, which is why crystal balls these days are made of glass, not quartz. Rock crystal has often been used in jewellery, particularly carved pieces. Many stunning art deco jewellery designs featured the black and white quartz combination of rock crystal and onyx. Colourless quartz crystals have also become popular in jewellery due to the popularity of legends about their powers. Many people believe that wearing quartz crystals benefits their health and spiritual well-being.

Rutilated Quartz and Tourmalinated Quartz
While most varieties of transparent quartz are valued most when they show no inclusions, some are valued chiefly because of them! The most popular of these is known as Rutilated quartz. Rutilated quartz is transparent rock crystal with golden needles of rutile arrayed in patterns inside it. Each pattern is different and some are breathtakingly beautiful. The inclusions are sometimes called Venus hair. Less well known is a variety called tourmalinated quartz which, instead of golden rutile, has black or dark green tourmaline crystals.

Chalcedonies
Quartz that is formed not of one single crystal but a number of finely grained microcrystals is known as chalcedony. The variety of chalcedonies is even greater than that of transparent quartz, including cryptocrystalline quartz with patterns as well as a wide range of solid colours. Agates are banded. Bloodstone has red spots on a green background. Moss agate has a plant-like pattern. Jasper sometimes looks like a landscape painting. Another staple of the jewellery industry is black onyx, chalcedony quartz which owes its even black colour to an ancient dyeing process that is still used today. Carnelian, another chalcedony valued in the ancient world, has a vivid brownish orange colour and clear translucency that makes it popular for signet rings and seals. Chrysoprase, a bright, apple-green, translucent chalcedony, is the most valued. It was a particular favourite of Frederick The Great of Prussia. It can be seen today decorating many buildings in beautiful Prague, including the Chapel of St Wenceslas. Today, chrysoprase is found mostly in Australia. Unlike most other green stones, which owe their colour to chromium or vanadium, chrysoprase derives its colour from nickel. It’s bright even colour and texture lend themselves well to beads, cabochons, and carvings.

 

Ruby

Ruby is a light pink to blood red gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide). The color is caused mainly by chromium. Its name comes from ruber, Latin for red. Other varieties of gem-quality corundum are called sapphires. It is considered one of the four precious stones, together with the sapphire, the emerald and the diamond.

Rubies are mined in Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Kenya, Madagascar, and Cambodia, but they have also been found in the U.S. states of Montana, North Carolina and South Carolina. The Mogok Valley in Upper Myanmar has produced some of the finest rubies but, in recent years very few good rubies have been found there. The unique color in Myanmar (Burmese) rubies is described as "pigeon’s blood". They are known in the trade as “Mogok” rubies. In central Myanmar the area of Mong Hsu also produces rubies. The latest ruby deposit to be found in Myanmar is situated in Nam Ya. In 2002 rubies were found in the Waseges River area of Kenya. Sometimes spinels are found along with rubies in the same rocks and are mistaken for rubies. However, fine red Spinels may approach the average ruby in value.

Rubies have a hardness of 9.0 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Among the natural gems only diamond is harder (Mohs 10.0 by definition).

All natural rubies have imperfections in them, including color impurities and inclusions of rutile needles known as "silk". Gemologists use these needle inclusions found in natural rubies to distinguish them from synthetics, simulants, or substitutes. Usually the rough stone is heated before cutting. Almost all rubies today are treated in some form (of which heat treatment is the most common practice), and rubies which are completely untreated and still of excellent quality command a large premium.

 For thousands of years, the ruby has been considered one of the most valuable gemstones on Earth. It has everything a precious stone should have: magnificent colour, excellent hardness and outstanding brilliance. In addition to that, it is an extremely rare gemstone, especially in its finer qualities. Ruby is the birthstone associated with July and of the zodiac sign Leo and Cancer.

Ruby is associated with the Sun in Vedic astrology.

Ruby is associated with a 40th wedding anniversary.

Rubies have always been held in high esteem in Asian countries. They were used to ornament armor, scabbards, and harness of noblemen in India and China. Rubies were laid beneath the foundation of buildings to secure good fortune to the structure.

 VARIETIES
Burmese Ruby - Ruby with exceptional colour (usually but not necessarily from Burma)       
Pigeon's Blood Ruby - Blood-red ruby with a hint of blue
Star Ruby - Ruby displaying asterism
Cat's Eye Ruby - Ruby exhibiting cat's eye effect
Burma Ruby - Synonym of Burma ruby (above)
Verneuil Ruby - Synthetic, laboratory-grown ruby

Magic

Acts like the sun – as a reliable source of life-energy – and brings the wearer benefits

                              associated with the sun (i.e. vitality and success).

Smoothes relationships with other people

 

Healing

Balances the heart, both subtly and physically

Helps to engender feelings of confidence, security, enthusiasm and self-esteem

Warms and steadies

 

Sapphire Sapphire is the most precious of blue gemstones. It is a most desirable gem due to its colour, hardness, durability, and lustre. The most valuable colour of sapphire is cornflower blue, known as Kashmir sapphire or Cornflower blue sapphire  

Colours – Blue sapphire, yellow sapphire, green sapphire, white sapphire , colourless sapphire, pink sapphire,  orange sapphire, brown sapphire  and purple sapphire .

Hardness – 9.

 

After diamond, sapphire is the second hardest mineral known to man.

 

Varieties

Australian Sapphire - Dark blue to nearly black sapphire

Kashmir Sapphire - Sapphire with a distinct velvety-blue colour
Cornflower Blue Sapphire - Synonym of Kashmir sapphire
Star Sapphire - Sapphire displaying asterism
Padparadschah - Orange-pink variety of sapphire
Colour Change Sapphire - Sapphire exhibiting a different colour in natural and

                          artificial light
Bi-colour Sapphire - Sapphire with more than one colour
Cat's Eye Sapphire - Sapphire exhibiting cat's eye effect
Fancy Sapphire - Any sapphire with a colour other than blue
Verneuil Sapphire - Synthetic, laboratory-grown sapphire

  Star Sapphires & Cat’s Eye Effect

Inclusions of tiny, slender, parallel Rutile needles cause polished sapphire gems to exhibit asterism. Sapphire gems displaying asterism are known as "star sapphires", and if transparent are especially prized. Star sapphires are usually in six ray stars, but twelve ray stars are also known. Very rarely, sapphire also exhibits cat's eye effect.
Colour zoning, which forms from growth layers that build up during the formation of the stone, is present in certain sapphires. However, uniformity of colour is an important factor in a sapphire's value.

  Magic –            Provides spiritual strength

                        Protects from envy and harm

                        Attracts favourable spirits and blessings

                        Encourages wisdom and prophecy       

                        Aids victory over all (star sapphires)

 

Healing –          Balances the endocrine system and reins in overactive energies

                        Calms, regulates and reduces tension in the solar plexus created by fear     

                                     and anxiety

                        Increases powers of personal expression, benefiting the heart and

                        throat chakras

                        Stimulates the higher mind

 

SpectroliteSpectrolite is a hard and rare variety of labradorite feldspar. Spectrolite has a Mohs hardness between 6 and 6.5 and a specific gravity of 2.69 to 2.70. The variety is noted for iridescence of spectrum colours from blue to red. It is often cut as a lapidary cabochon and used as a gemstone.Spectrolite was discovered by the Finnish during WWII when building a defense line in Ylämaa in southeast Finland. After the war, Spectrolite was mined in small quantities. This small supply made it more valuable. Although labradorite is found in Labrador, Norway, Madagascar and Russia in addition to Finland, the Finnish stones have been mined and marketed under the name Spectrolite, which was given by a professor Aarne Laitakari.

What makes Spectrolite so fascinating is its endless play of colours and hues: they vary in all the hues of the rainbow and reflect the shades so
characteristic of Finnish nature: from golden shades of brown to the deepest blue.

Tanzanite

Tanzanite is blue, surrounded by a fine hint of purple, and is named after the East African state of Tanzania, the only place in the world where it has been found.  This crystal was only discovered in 1967 in the Merelani Hills near Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania.

 Thanks to its unusual aura, it has rapidly become one of the most coveted gemstones in the world. It has become so popular that in October of 2002 the American Gem Trade Association (AGTA) announced that tanzanite had joined zircon and turquoise in the traditional list of birthstones for the month of December. Tanzanite is a blue variety of the gemstone zoisite. It consists of calcium aluminium silicate and is not particularly hard, having a value of 6.5 to 7 on the Mohs scale. For that reason, it should always be worn carefully and never placed in an ultrasonic bath for cleaning or brought into contact with acids. The deep blue of the tanzanite is fantastic, and runs from ultramarine blue to light violet-blue. The most coveted colour is a blue surrounded by a delicate hint of purple.

Magic

Reveals the extraordinary within the ordinary

Associated with transmutation and revelation

Can disguise the true nature of things

 Healing Focuses healing energy wherever it is placed, but especially in the throat area.

Quickly releases strong pent-up emotions

Stimulates intuition and psychic skills

Integrates energy and information from diverse sources to create a new wholeness

 

 Topaz

Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic group and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage, meaning that gemstones or other fine specimens have to be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4–3.6, and a vitreous luster. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, pink or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent.Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those at Topaz Mountain in western Utah. It may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Afghanistan, Czech Republic, Germany, Norway, Pakistan, Italy, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.Yellow topaz is the traditional November birthstone (Blue Topaz for December).

Birthstone: Topaz along with Citrine are birthstones of Scorpius (Scorpion): Oct. 24 - Nov. 21.

Wedding anniversary: Topaz is the anniversary gemstone for the 4th and 19th year of marriage.
Imperial topaz is the anniversary gemstone for the 23rd year of marriage.

Varieties: Nothing compares to the sparkling brilliance of Blue Topaz. Orange-red Imperial Topaz is rare.

Pink Topaz
Blue Topaz
Brown Topaz
Green Topaz

London Blue Topaz - deep blue topaz (the deepest blue form of topaz)

Swiss Blue Topaz - deep blue topaz (not as deep blue as London blue topaz

Paraiba Topaz - sea-green topaz

 

Magic

 Fosters self-assurance and good leadership

Encourages people to express their desires

 

Healing

 Releases physical tension

Helps to stabilize the emotions

Increases motivation and confidence

Harmonises all layers of subtle energy

 

Tourmaline

Tourmaline has a wide variety of colours. Usually, iron-rich tourmalines are black to bluish-black to deep brown, while magnesium-rich varieties are brown to yellow, and lithium-rich tourmalines are practically any color: blue, green, red, yellow, pink etc. Rarely, it is colorless. Bi-colored and multicolored crystals are relatively common, reflecting variations of fluid chemistry during crystallization. Crystals may be green at one end and pink at the other, or green on the outside and pink inside: this type is called watermelon tourmaline. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic, in that they appear to change color when viewed from different directions.

Tourmalines are found almost all over the world. There are major deposits in Brazil, Sri Lanka and South and South-West Africa. Other finds have been made in Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Tourmalines are also found in the USA, mainly in California and Maine.

Tourmalines are gems with an incomparable variety of colours. The reason, according to an old Egyptian legend, is that the tourmaline, on its long journey up from the centre of the Earth, passed over a rainbow. In doing so, it assumed all the colours of the rainbow. And that is why it is still referred to as the 'gemstone of the rainbow' today.

The name apparently comes from the Sinhalese word "Turamali" which was given to mixtures of unidentified gem gravels in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). Insoluble in acids. Strong pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties. This pressure/electric relationship is used in some high pressure gauges.

Tourmalines come in just about every colour in the rainbow. Some of the colours have unique jewellery related names.

Pink to Red tourmaline is known as rubellite, and the colour is probably from manganese. It is one of the most valuable of the tourmalines when the colours are dark and rich. Large flawless stones are rare, as the pink variety tends to have more flaws.

Greens - there are two distinct families of green tourmaline, one contains trace amounts of chromium (and coincidentally is called Chrome Tourmaline). It has a high value. Other shades of green may run from light green, to dark olive green and they tend to have less value than the chrome, blue or pinks.

Blue - blue tourmaline is known as indicolite and is highly prized. The best stones are pure blue without hints of green or gray. It tends to be of similar colour to dark blue topaz. A new variety of light and very lively blue was discovered in Paraiba, Brazil, and has achieved the highest prices paid for tourmaline. Analysis of this material show trace amounts of gold in the structure. Blue stones can be found that are large and flawless. They do not suffer from the poor structure found in rubellite.

 Yellow and orange tourmaline maintains intermediate value as long as it does not move into the brown region. Clean yellow and bright orange stones are sought after by collectors and find their way into a small amount of commercial jewellery. Brown and orange-brown stones are quite common and are not highly valued.

There is a special variety of tourmaline that shows a pink/red interior, and is surrounded by a green exterior "rind". It is called "watermelon" tourmaline, and is often cut and polished flat across a crystal face. It is sometimes cabbed, and even faceted.

Some faceted tourmalines show colour changes from top to bottom. Most often these stones are cut into long, rectangular shapes and may display two or more colour changes down their long axis. They are usually called bi-colour or tri-colour stones.

Finally, some pinks, yellows, and greens, may show chatoyancy, and produce cats-eye cabochons.

Indicolite (blue)

Healing

Balances the throat chakra, so benefits the thyroid, lungs, larynx and bones of the neck.

Activates the brow chakra, maximising perception, intelligence and absorption of information.

Rubellite (red or pink)

 Can be a stimulating or calming stone, depending on the depth of colour.

Helps to correct excessively aggressive or passive personalities.

Energizes the sacral chakra, which increases all forms of creativity.

 Watermelon Tourmaline (green intermixed with pink) Excellent for balancing the heart chakra on all levels Verdelite (green) Boosts the immune system

Realigns bones and strained muscle tissue

Increases confidence and helps to give us a sense of belonging.

 

 

Amethyst Amethyst is the purple variety of quartz.  Because it has a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale, amethyst is treasured for its use in jewelry. However, it is still just 1/15 as hard as diamond. Amethyst is the birthstone for February.The name "amethyst" comes from the Greek and means "not drunken." This was maybe due to a belief that amethyst would ward off the effects of alcohol, but most likely the Greeks were referring to the almost wine-like colour of some stones that they may have encountered.Amethyst occurs in a continuum of primary hues from a light slightly pinkish violet to a deep grape purple. Amethyst may exhibit one or both secondary hues, red and/or blue. Due to its popularity as a gemstone, several descriptive terms have been coined in the gem trade to describe the varying colors of amethyst. "Rose de France" is usually a pale pinkish lavender or lilac shade.  The most prized color is an intense violet with red flashes and is called "Siberian," although gems of this color may occur from several locations other than Siberia, notably Uruguay and Zambia. In more recent times, certain gems (usually of Bolivian origin) that have shown alternate bands of amethyst purple with citrine orange have been given the name Ametrine. Because of the patchiness of the colour distribution in the crystals, Amethyst is often cut as brilliant round cuts to maximize the colour. The colour purple is traditionally the colour of royalty and amethyst has been used since the dawn of history to adorn the rich and powerful monarchs and rulers. Today, amethyst is a lovely and affordable gemstone that is fortunately available in a wide variety of cut and uncut stones. Amethyst is only one of several quartz varieties. Other varieties that form macroscopic (large enough to see) crystals are as follows:
  • Citrine is a yellow to orange gemstone variety that is rare in nature but is often created by heating Amethyst.
  • Milky Quartz is the cloudy white variety.
  • Rock crystal is the clear variety that is also used as a gemstone.
  • Rose quartz is a pink to reddish pink variety.
  • Smoky quartz is the brown to gray variety.
 Amethyst’s magical qualities are said to help maintain equilibrium in all situations and balance polarities.Amethyst’s healing functions are that it encourages self control, calms harsh emotions and brings stability, helps practical applications of imagination and aids meditation and sleep.

Amethyst, along with other gems, has served as both a birthstone and a lucky charm to those who follow the star signs and spirit guide. It prevails as the birthstone for Sagittarius (November 22- December 21) along with sapphire. Sagittarius has always been known as a free spirit and can be, at times, wild yet always wanting to explore. Amethyst is Sagittarius' aide in the search for new unexplored territories and also helps to pacify the wild ways when they get out of hand. Amethyst has also been accredited as a birthstone for Aquarius (January 20- February 18) due to its traditional standing as February's birthstone. Those who fall under Aquarius are typically very "humanly" with a goal to always understand and amethyst guides those of this sign to opening up to that which is mystical, psychic, supernatural and beyond knowledge. By the same reason of its traditional standing as February's birthstone, amethyst is also accredited as a birthstone for Pisces (February 19- March 20), but it is more commonly recognized as Pisces' lucky charm. Pisces embraces amethyst because of their tendency to skip from one level to the next and to go from one extreme to the other without any type of transition and amethyst, being a great crystal of easing and soothing transition, is the perfect charm. 

 

Amethyst is related to a specific day, time and to colour. This purple stone is the official crystal or gem for Wednesday. It has also been known as the gem most representative of the 8:00 am hour. The colour amethyst represents is the colour purple, which is also the colour for February.

 

Amethyst is the anniversary gemstone for the 6th year of marriage.

AMETRINE Ametrine gemstones are also known as Trystine or by its trade name as Bolivianite, are a naturally occurring variety of quartz. This gemstone is a mixture of Amethyst and Citrine with zones of purple and yellow or orange. Almost all commercially available Ametrine gems are mined in Bolivia, although there are deposits being exploited in Brazil and India.The colour of the zones visible within this gem are due to differing oxidation states of iron within the crystal. The different oxidation states occur due to there being a temperature gradient across the crystal during its formation.

Legend has it that Ametrine was first introduced to Europe by a conquistador's gifts to the Spanish Queen, after he received the Anahi mine in Bolivia as a dowry.

 Ametrine is a very durable gemstone suited to a variety of jewellery uses. Most sizes and shapes are available but the colour contrast is most pronounced in sizes of over seven carats. 

Ametrine is said to have all the metaphysical properties of both Amethyst and Citrine combined, as well its own unique properties; aids in meditation, relieves tension, disperses negativity and helps to eliminate prejudice.

 CITRINE Citrine, also called Citrine Quartz is an amber-colored gemstone. It is a form of quartz with ferric iron impurities, and is rarely found naturally. Most commercial citrine gemstones are in fact artificially heated Amethyst or Smoky Quartz. Brazil is the leading producer of naturally mined citrine gems, with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul.It has a hardness of 7. Citrine can be easily scratched. Citrine often permanently changes colour if left in the sunlight for several hours. Most Citrine on the market is heat treated amethyst. Citrine is found in Brazil, Madagascar, Spain, USA and the former USSR.

November Birthstone: Modern and Traditional Birthstone

Virgo (Aug 23-Sep 22): Planetary Stone

Citrine is the anniversary gemstone for the 17th year of marriage.

 

Citrine is said to help one connect with Spirit.

Citrine is given as a symbol of hope, youth, health, and fidelity.

The name "Citrine" is derived from the French word for lemon.

The Citrine is a wonderful gemstone. It helps to manifest your goals. Also keeps one cheerful. It attracts abundance and personal power. Is one of the only gemstones which dissipates negative energy but instead dissipates and transmutes it and never requires cleansing or clearing.  Citrine is known as a “merchant’s stone”, to be placed in cash registers or where business is conducted to not only attract positive wealth but to maintain it.  Citrine stimulates the body's own healing energies. It is good for helping to elevate self-esteem and is good for centering. Can help one's memory and can aid in problem solving. Gives one confidence and self-discipline. Excellent for opening the 3rd chakra. Citrine can not hold negative vibes. A good stone for clearing the auras.

 

 

EMERALD Emerald is a variety of the mineral beryl, colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Beryl has a hardness of 7.5 - 8 on the 10 point Mohs scale of hardness. Most emeralds are highly included, so the brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor.The lively luminosity of its colour makes the emerald a unique gemstone. However, really good quality is fairly rare, with inclusions often marring the evenness of the colour. Fine inclusions, however, do not by any means diminish the high regard in which it is held. On the contrary: even with inclusions, an emerald in a deep, lively green still has a much higher value than an almost flawless emerald whose colour is paler.The name emerald comes from the Greek 'smaragdos' via the Old French 'esmeralde', and really just means 'green gemstone'. Innumerable fantastic stories have grown up around this magnificent gem. The Incas and Aztecs of South America, where the best emeralds are still found today, regarded the emerald as a holy gemstone. However, probably the oldest known finds were once made near the Red Sea in Egypt. These gemstone mines, already exploited by Egyptian pharaohs between 3000 and 1500 B.C. and later referred to as 'Cleopatra's Mines', had already been exhausted by the time they were rediscovered in the early 19th century.Emeralds come in many shades of green and bluish green. There is a wide spectrum of clarity, dependent on the inclusions and fractures in the crystal. Today, many emeralds are enhanced with colourless oils or resins. This is a general trade practice, but it does have the consequence that these green treasures react very sensitively to inappropriate treatment. For example, they cannot be cleaned in an ultrasonic bath. The substances that may have been used by the cutter during his work, or applied subsequently, seal the fine pores in the surface of the gem. Removing them will end up giving the stone a matt appearance. For this reason, emerald rings should always be taken off before the wearer puts his or her hands in water containing cleansing agent.

Colombian Emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire. Some of the rarest emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo, Coscuez, and Chivor. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries, such as Zambia, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and Russia.

The value of an Emerald depends on cut, colour, clarity, and carat. The characteristics of Colombian emeralds set the highest standards of quality.

Emerald is regarded as the traditional birthstone for May, and for commemorating the 20th and 35th wedding anniversaries as well as the traditional gemstone for the astrological signs of Taurus and Cancer.The magnificent green of the emerald is a colour which conveys harmony, love of Nature and elemental joie de vivre. The human eye can never see enough of this unique colour. Green is perceived as fresh and vivid, never as monotonous. And in view of the fact that this colour always changes somewhat between the bright light of day and the artificial light of a lamp, emerald green retains its lively vigour in all its nuances.Emeralds from Zimbabwe are among the oldest gemstones anywhere in the world. They were already growing 2600 million years ago, whilst some specimens from Pakistan, for example, are a mere 9 million years old.The magic of Emeralds is that they ·          reveal the truth, so encourages honesty·          bolster love, friendship and attachment·          associated with prophecy and foresightEmeralds healing functions:   ·          speeds cleansing and purifying processes·          assuages hidden fears and anxieties·          effective as a focus for meditation

 

 

FLUORITE  Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is a mineral. Fluorite may occur as a vein deposit, especially with metallic minerals, where it often forms a part of the gangue (the worthless "host-rock" in which valuable minerals occur) and may be associated with galena, sphalerite, barite, quartz, and calcite. It is a common mineral in deposits of hydrothermal origin and has been noted as a primary mineral in granites and other igneous rocks and as a common minor constituent of dolostone and limestone. Fluorite has a hardness of 4.Fluorite is a widely occurring mineral which is found in large deposits in many areas. Notable deposits occur in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, England, Norway, Mexico, and Ontario in Canada. Large deposits also occur in Kenya in the Kerio Valley area within the Great Rift Valley.Formerly has a wide range of colours including yellow, blue, pink purple and green. It is an interesting and beautiful stone because often more than one colour occurs in a single stone. The ancient Egyptians used fluorite to carve statues and scarabs, the Chinese have used it in carvings for over 300 years. In the 18th century, fluorite was powdered in water to relieve the symptoms of kidney disease.Fluorite is said to absorb and neutralize negative vibrations. It makes one more receptive to the vibrations of other stones. Fluorite should be kept in every room of the home. Fluorite is known as the "Genius Stone". Fluorite may be used with other stones. It helps to open the way for the power of other stones to be effective. It can be used as a meditation stone to help energize the body and raise the power of concentration.Healers use it to help with ulcers as well as the respiratory tract by stimulating cell regeneration in these areas. It fortifies bones, improves arthritic or other joint ailments. It can be laid directly on the body.MagicEncourages innovation and inventionHelps in planning and coordinating resourcesHealingSupports healthy bone tissue and physical structures of all organsHelps us to master physical skills and improve dexterity and balanceEncourages a sense of self-worthFacilitates assimilation of new ideas and understanding of fine levels of awareness

 

 

GARNET Garnet is a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. Garnets are most often seen in red, but are available in a wide variety of colors spanning the entire spectrum. The name "garnet" comes from the Latin granatus ("grain"), possibly a reference to the Punica granatum ("pomegranate"), a plant with red seeds similar in shape, size, and color to some garnet crystals.Six common varieties of garnet are recognized based on their chemical composition. They are pyrope, almandine, spessartite, grossular (varieties of which are hessonites or cinnamon-stone and tsavorite), uvarovite and andradite. The garnets make up two solid solution series; 1. pyrope-almandine-spessarite and 2. uvarovite-grossular-andradite.Garnets are found in many colors including red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, brown, black, pink and colorless. The rarest of these is the blue garnet, discovered in the late 1990s in Bekily, Madagascar.Because the chemical composition of garnet varies, the atomic bonds in some varieties are stronger than in others. As a result, the mineral shows a range of hardness on the Mohs scale of about 6.5 to 7.5. The harder varieties, like almandite, are often used for abrasive purposes.

Almandine - sometimes called Almandite, is the modern gem known as Carbuncle (though originally almost any red gemstone was known by this name). The term "carbuncle" is derived from the Latin meaning "little spark." The name Almandine is a corruption of Alabanda, a region in Asia Minor where these stones were cut in ancient times. The deep red transparent stones are often called precious garnet and are used as gemstones (being the most common of the gem garnets). Almandine occurs in metamorphic rocks like mica schists, associated with minerals such as Staurolite, Kyanite, Andalusite, and others. Almandine has nicknames of Oriental garnet, Almandine Ruby, and Carbuncle.

Pyrope from the Latin pyropos means similar to fire. The color of pyrope varies from deep red to almost black.A variety of pyrope from Macon County, North Carolina is a violet-red shade and has been called Rhodolite, from the Greek meaning "a rose." Pyrope has trade names some of which are misnomers; Cape ruby, Arizona ruby, California ruby, Rocky Mountain ruby, and Bohemian garnet from the Czech Republic. Another intriguing find is the blue color-change garnets from Madagascar, a Pyrope Spessartine mix. The color of these blue garnets is not like sapphire blue in subdued daylight but more reminiscent of the grayish blues and greenish blues sometimes seen in Spinel.

Spessartite or spessartine is manganese aluminium garnet. Its name is derived from Spessart in Bavaria. It occurs most often in granite pegmatite and allied rock types and in certain low grade metamorphic phyllites. Spessartite of a beautiful orange-yellow is found in Madagascar (see Mandarin garnet). Violet-red Spessartites are found in rhyolites in Colorado and Maine.

 

Andradite - is a calcium-iron garnet and is of variable composition and may be red, yellow, brown, green or black. The recognized sub varieties are topazolite (yellow or green), demantoid (green) and melantite (black). Andradite is found both in deep-seated igneous rocks like syenite as well as serpentines, schists, and crystalline limestone. Demantoid has been called the "Emerald of the Urals" from its occurrence there, and is one of the most prized of garnet varieties. Topazolite is a golden yellow variety and melanite is a black variety.

Grossular is a calcium-aluminium garnet though the calcium may in part be replaced by ferrous iron and the aluminium by ferric iron. The name grossular is derived from the botanical name for the gooseberry, grossularia, in reference to the green garnet of this composition that is found in Siberia. Other shades include cinnamon brown (cinnamon stone variety), red, and yellow. Because of its inferior hardness to zircon, which the yellow crystals resemble, they have also been called hessonite from the Greek meaning inferior. Grossular is found in contact metamorphosed limestones with vesuvianite, diopside, wollastonite and wernerite.

One of the most sought after varieties of gem garnet is the fine green grossular garnet from Kenya and Tanzania called tsavorite. This garnet was discovered in the 1960s in the Tsavo area of Kenya, from which the gem takes its name.

Uvarovite is a calcium chromium garnet. This is a rather rare garnet, bright green in colour, usually found as small crystals associated with chromite in peridotite, serpentinite, and kimberlites. It is found in crystalline marbles and schists in the Ural Mountains of Russia and Outokumpu, Finland.

Magic

Gets projects under way

Provides fortitude and courage

Healing

 

The colour will tend to determine the focus of its use for healing. However, all garnets speed up healing processes.

 

Red garnets are powerfully energizing – use only for short periods.

 

Green garnets are gentler, but still stimulate.

 

All garnets bring a fiery, warming energy to fight cold, sluggish or damp disease states.

   IOLITE The name "iolite" comes from the Greek word for violet. Another old name is dichroite, a Greek word meaning "two-colored rock", a reference to cordierite's strong pleochroism. Gem quality iolite varies in color from sapphire blue to blue violet to yellowish gray to light blue as the light angle changes. Iolite is found in Sri Lanka, Burma, Australia's Northern Territory, Namibia, Brazil, Tanzania, Madagascar, Connecticut, and the Yellowknife area of the Northwest Territories of Canada.It has a hardness of 7 to 7.5 on the Moh's scale. The Iolite gemstone possesses a very important feature that is called pleochroism. This property possessed by a few other gemstones too, causes the gemstone to show different colours when viewed from different angles and sides. When viewed from one side the Iolite gemstone will show a gorgeous bluish violet colour and when viewed from the other side, appears very pale colour and almost colourless. It is believed that the Vikings used the Iolite gemstone to help them navigate on the high seas when very far away from the coastline. Looking through the gemstone at a certain angle, the Vikings could determine the exact position of the sun and never got lost when on the high seas. Magic:              Enables us to consider a situation from all angles                        Combines science and magic, logic and imagination Healing:            Activates the nervous and endocrine systems                        Enhances feelings of sympathy and empathy – both in us for others and                         in others for us.                        Helps us to decide when other people do or do not need our help.

                        Encourages understanding and acceptance of the duality of existence.

 

 

 Opal The mineraloid opal is amorphous SiO2·nH2O, hydrated silicon dioxide, the water content sometimes being as high as 20% but is usually between three and ten percent. Opal ranges from clear through white, gray, red, yellow, green, shore, blue, magenta, brown, and black. Of these hues, red and black are the rarest and most expensive, whereas white and green are the most common; these are a function of growth size into the red and infrared wavelengths—see precious opal. Common opal is truly amorphous, but precious opal does have a structural element. The word opal comes from the Latin opalus, by Greek òpalliòs, and is from the same root as Sanskrit upálá[s] for "stone", originally a millstone with upárá[s] for slab. Opals are also Australia's national gemstone.Australia is the classical Opal country and today is the worldwide most important supplier of Fine Opals. Almost 95 per cent of all Opals come from Australian mines. The remaining five per cent are mined in Mexico, and in Brazil’s north, also in the US states of Idaho and Nevada, but recently the stones have also been found in Ethiopia and in the West African country of Mali.Due to the differing percentage of water, Opals may easily become brittle. They always contain water – usually between 2 and 6 per cent, but sometimes even more. Thus if stored too dry or exposed to heat over a longer period of time, Opals will show fissures and the play of colour will become paler. Therefore, Opal jewellery should be worn as often as possible, for then the gemstone will receive the needed humidity from the air and from the skin of its wearer.

Opals are not very hard: they only achieve 5.5 to 6 on the Mohs’ scale. Therefore they appreciate a protective setting. In earlier days Opal’s sensitive surface was often oiled, but today also sealing them with colourless artificial resin has become quite popular.
The history of Australian Opal began actually millions of years ago, when parts of Australia were covered by a vast inland sea, and stone sediment was deposited along its shoreline. When the water masses flooded back, they flushed water containing silica into the resulting cavities and niches in the sedimentary rocks, and also the remains of plants and animals were deposited there. Slowly the silica stone transformed into Opal, for basically Opals are simply a combination of silica and water. Or, to be more precise: Opals are a gel from silica, with varying percentages of water.Opal is a mineraloid gel which is deposited at relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock, being most commonly found with limonite, sandstone, rhyolite, and basalt.All of Nature’s splendour seems to be reflected in the manifold opulence of fine Opals: fire and lightnings, all the colours of the rainbow and the soft shine of far seas. Australia is the classical country of origin. Almost ninety-five per cent of all fine opals come from the dry and remote outback deserts.

Numerous legends and tales surround this colourful gemstone, which can be traced back in its origins to a time long before our memory, to the ancient dream time of the Australian aborigines. It is reported in their legends that the creator came down to Earth on a rainbow, in order to bring the message of peace to all the humans. And at the very spot, where his foot touched the ground, the stones became alive and started sparkling in all the colours of the rainbow. That was the birth of the Opals.

The group of fine Opals includes quite a number of wonderful gemstones, which share one characteristic: they shine and sparkle in a continually changing play of colours full of fantasy, which experts describe as “opalising”. Depending on the kind, place of occurrence, and colour of the main body, we differentiate Dark or Black Opal, White or Light Opal, Milk or Crystal Opal, Boulder Opal, Opal Matrix, Yowah Nuts from Queensland – the so-called “picture stones“, and also Mexican and Fire Opal. Opal variations are practically unlimited. They all show in their own special way that unique play of colours – except for Fire Opal, which due to its transparency, however, is nevertheless also considered a Fine Opal specimen. If Opals are lacking the typical play of colours, they are simply named “Common Opal”.
For ages people have believed in the healing power of Opal. It is reported to be able to solve depressions and to help its wearer find the true and real love. Opals are supposed to further enhance the positive characteristics for people born under the zodiac sign of Cancer. Black Opal is recommended to those born under Scorpio, and Boulder Opal is the lucky stone for Aries.

The fantastic colour play of Opal reflects changing emotions and moods of people. Fire and water, the sparkling images of Boulder Opal, the vivid light flashes of Black Opal or the soft shine of Milk Opal – striking contrasts characterise the colourful world of this fascinating gemstone. Maybe this is the reason why it depends on our daily mood which Opal we prefer. Opals are like human emotions: you always experience them different and anew.
Andean Opal (pale blue, turquoise and green) Soothes the emotionsHelps to ease relationship difficulties Cherry Opal (pink, red and orange) Helps to regenerate tissue and bloodGently increases energy levelsHelps to lift moods Dark Opal (brown, black or grey-blue) Activates and balances the sacral chakraEases premenstrual tension/menstrual cramps  Fire Opal (rich red-orange)Encourages recovery after emotional upset, “burn out” or “draining” situations.Precious Opal (clear with rainbow colours)Helps to stabilize mood swingsEases the flow of life-energy through the subtle body Common Opal (no opalescence or fire: can be milky white, grey, green, purple, brown or clear). Provides more gentle energy than other opalsStabilizes the emotionsIncreases sense of self-worth White Opal ( milky white with traces of other colours). Energizes the crown chakraBrings clarity of mind Dendritic or Tree Opal (common opal with impurities that form moss-like patterns) 

Strengthens the ability to organise

Releases the constriction in the lungs, nerves and blood vessels

Peridot 

Peridot (pronounced pear-uh-doe) is a French word derived from the Arabic faridat, which means gem. The stone ranges in colour from light yellow-green to the intense bright green of new grass to olive. Peridot has a hardness of 6.5 - 7.

 

Peridot, also called precious olivine, is a gem-quality transparent green olivine. The crystals of Peridot have a vitreous lustre and conchoidal fracture. Gem-quality olivine is a mineral that composes a lot of the earth's mantel, the layer below the crust. It is also common in basalts on the moon. Chrysolite is a golden yellow variety of Peridot.

 

Peridot has been adored since ancient times and has been valued for centuries. People in the Middle Ages wore Peridot to gain foresight and divine inspiration. Legend has it that pirates fevered Peridot to protect them against evil. Peridot was greatly prized by Egyptian Kings. Some of Cleopatra's emeralds were in fact Peridots.

 

This beautiful stone is worn or carried for general healing purposes. Peridot increases strength & physical vitality. Peridot protects against nervousness and aids in healing hurt feelings. It helps liver & adrenal function. Peridot is also thought to protect lungs, sinuses, and wrists from illness and injury.


Peridot is used to help dreams become a reality. This very popular stone is believed to attract love. The deep green hue of the Peridot also suggests a connection in wealth-attracting. Peridot calms a raging anger. It is also useful to dispel negative emotions, and it is believed to promote sleep when worn to bed.

 

Peridot is found in Australia, Brazil, China, Egypt, Burma, Pakistan, Norway, and USA (Arizona, Colorado, Hawaii, and New Mexico).
Much of the today's Peridot comes from Arizona. Very large crystals are found in the Mogok district of Myanmar and in the Minas Gerais in Brazil.


Peridot has been mined from St John's Island in the Red Sea for over 3500 years. In 1994, an exciting new deposit of Peridot was discovered in Pakistan, and these stones are among the finest ever seen.

 

Magic:              Symbolizes the vibrant energy of the natural world.

                        Provides protection from harmful forces and influences.

 

Healing:            Removes toxins from the body

                        Restores emotional balance

                        Overrides unwanted patterns of thought

                        Enables us to let go of the past

                        Helps to strengthen personal identity

 

 

Quartz

 Quartz belongs to the rhombohedral crystal system. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramids at each end. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned, distorted, or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape, or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void, but because the crystals must be attached at the other end to a matrix; only one termination pyramid is present. A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape, lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward.Quartz goes by an array of different names. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and the microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification). Chalcedony is a generic term for cryptocrystalline quartz. The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque, while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline.Purple to violet - Amethyst ( Amethyst can also be green )Yellow to orange - Citrine Ametrine combines the appeal of both Amethyst and Citrine, purple and yellow in one gemstone. Different colours and types of chalcedony, from agate to chrysoprase, have grown in popularity with the growing appreciation for carved gemstones and artistic cutting and carving. And unusual specialities like druzy quartz, with its surface covered by tiny sparking crystals, and rutilated quartz, which has a landscape of shining gold needles inside it, are adding variety and nature's artistry to unusual one-of-a-kind jewellery.Rose quartz

The pale pink colour of quartz, which can range from transparent to translucent, is known as rose quartz. The colour is a very pale and delicate powder pink. Transparent rose quartz is very rare, and usually so pale that it does not show very much colour at all except in large sizes. Translucent rose quartz is much more readily available, being used for beads, cabochons, carvings, and architectural purposes.Smokey quartz

Smoky quartz is a brown transparent quartz that is sometimes used for unusual faceted cuts. The commercial market is limited, because there is a rather limited demand for brown gemstones. This variety was sometimes known as smoky topaz in the past, though the term is incorrect and misleading.  Tiger's eye

Tiger's eye quartz contains brown iron which produces its golden yellow colour. Cabochon cut stones of this variety show the chatoyancy (small ray of light on the surface) that resembles the feline eye of a tiger. The most important deposit is in South Africa, though tiger's eye is also found in Western Australia, Burma (Myanmar), India and California.Rock crystal

The transparent, colourless variety of quartz is still known as rock crystal. Long ago, people believed that rock crystal was a compact form of ice: in fact 'crystallos' means 'ice'. The best rock crystal has the clarity and shimmer of water. Although colourless quartz is relatively common, large flawless specimens are not, which is why crystal balls these days are made of glass, not quartz. Rock crystal has often been used in jewellery, particularly carved pieces. Many stunning art deco jewellery designs featured the black and white quartz combination of rock crystal and onyx. Colourless quartz crystals have also become popular in jewellery due to the popularity of legends about their powers. Many people believe that wearing quartz crystals benefits their health and spiritual well-being.Rutilated Quartz and Tourmalinated Quartz

While most varieties of transparent quartz are valued most when they show no inclusions, some are valued chiefly because of them! The most popular of these is known as Rutilated quartz. Rutilated quartz is transparent rock crystal with golden needles of rutile arrayed in patterns inside it. Each pattern is different and some are breathtakingly beautiful. The inclusions are sometimes called Venus hair. Less well known is a variety called tourmalinated quartz which, instead of golden rutile, has black or dark green tourmaline crystals.

Chalcedonies

Quartz that is formed not of one single crystal but a number of finely grained microcrystals is known as chalcedony. The variety of chalcedonies is even greater than that of transparent quartz, including cryptocrystalline quartz with patterns as well as a wide range of solid colours. Agates are banded. Bloodstone has red spots on a green background. Moss agate has a plant-like pattern. Jasper sometimes looks like a landscape painting. Another staple of the jewellery industry is black onyx, chalcedony quartz which owes its even black colour to an ancient dyeing process that is still used today. Carnelian, another chalcedony valued in the ancient world, has a vivid brownish orange colour and clear translucency that makes it popular for signet rings and seals. Chrysoprase, a bright, apple-green, translucent chalcedony, is the most valued. It was a particular favourite of Frederick The Great of Prussia. It can be seen today decorating many buildings in beautiful Prague, including the Chapel of St Wenceslas. Today, chrysoprase is found mostly in Australia. Unlike most other green stones, which owe their colour to chromium or vanadium, chrysoprase derives its colour from nickel. It’s bright even colour and texture lend themselves well to beads, cabochons, and carvings.

 

RubyRuby is a light pink to blood red gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide). The color is caused mainly by chromium. Its name comes from ruber, Latin for red. Other varieties of gem-quality corundum are called sapphires. It is considered one of the four precious stones, together with the sapphire, the emerald and the diamond.Rubies are mined in Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Kenya, Madagascar, and Cambodia, but they have also been found in the U.S. states of Montana, North Carolina and South Carolina. The Mogok Valley in Upper Myanmar has produced some of the finest rubies but, in recent years very few good rubies have been found there. The unique color in Myanmar (Burmese) rubies is described as "pigeon’s blood". They are known in the trade as “Mogok” rubies. In central Myanmar the area of Mong Hsu also produces rubies. The latest ruby deposit to be found in Myanmar is situated in Nam Ya. In 2002 rubies were found in the Waseges River area of Kenya. Sometimes spinels are found along with rubies in the same rocks and are mistaken for rubies. However, fine red Spinels may approach the average ruby in value.Rubies have a hardness of 9.0 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Among the natural gems only diamond is harder (Mohs 10.0 by definition). All natural rubies have imperfections in them, including color impurities and inclusions of rutile needles known as "silk". Gemologists use these needle inclusions found in natural rubies to distinguish them from synthetics, simulants, or substitutes. Usually the rough stone is heated before cutting. Almost all rubies today are treated in some form (of which heat treatment is the most common practice), and rubies which are completely untreated and still of excellent quality command a large premium. For thousands of years, the ruby has been considered one of the most valuable gemstones on Earth. It has everything a precious stone should have: magnificent colour, excellent hardness and outstanding brilliance. In addition to that, it is an extremely rare gemstone, especially in its finer qualities. 
  • Ruby is the birthstone associated with July and of the zodiac sign Leo and Cancer.
  • Ruby is associated with the Sun in Vedic astrology.
  • Ruby is associated with a 40th wedding anniversary.
  • Rubies have always been held in high esteem in Asian countries. They were used to ornament armor, scabbards, and harness of noblemen in India and China. Rubies were laid beneath the foundation of buildings to secure good fortune to the structure.
   

VARIETIES
Burmese Ruby - Ruby with exceptional colour (usually but not necessarily from Burma)       
Pigeon's Blood Ruby - Blood-red ruby with a hint of blue
Star Ruby - Ruby displaying asterism
Cat's Eye Ruby - Ruby exhibiting cat's eye effect
Burma Ruby - Synonym of Burma ruby (above)
Verneuil Ruby - Synthetic, laboratory-grown ruby

MagicActs like the sun – as a reliable source of life-energy – and brings the wearer benefits                              associated with the sun (i.e. vitality and success).Smoothes relationships with other people Healing Balances the heart, both subtly and physicallyHelps to engender feelings of confidence, security, enthusiasm and self-esteemWarms and steadies

 

 

Sapphire Sapphire is the most precious of blue gemstones. It is a most desirable gem due to its colour, hardness, durability, and lustre. The most valuable colour of sapphire is cornflower blue, known as Kashmir sapphire or Cornflower blue sapphire  

Colours – Blue sapphire, yellow sapphire, green sapphire, white sapphire , colourless sapphire, pink sapphire,  orange sapphire, brown sapphire  and purple sapphire .

Hardness – 9.

 

After diamond, sapphire is the second hardest mineral known to man.

 

Varieties

Australian Sapphire - Dark blue to nearly black sapphire

Kashmir Sapphire - Sapphire with a distinct velvety-blue colour
Cornflower Blue Sapphire - Synonym of Kashmir sapphire
Star Sapphire - Sapphire displaying asterism
Padparadschah - Orange-pink variety of sapphire
Colour Change Sapphire - Sapphire exhibiting a different colour in natural and

                          artificial light
Bi-colour Sapphire - Sapphire with more than one colour
Cat's Eye Sapphire - Sapphire exhibiting cat's eye effect
Fancy Sapphire - Any sapphire with a colour other than blue
Verneuil Sapphire - Synthetic, laboratory-grown sapphire

  

Star Sapphires & Cat’s Eye Effect

Inclusions of tiny, slender, parallel Rutile needles cause polished sapphire gems to exhibit asterism. Sapphire gems displaying asterism are known as "star sapphires", and if transparent are especially prized. Star sapphires are usually in six ray stars, but twelve ray stars are also known. Very rarely, sapphire also exhibits cat's eye effect.
Colour zoning, which forms from growth layers that build up during the formation of the stone, is present in certain sapphires. However, uniformity of colour is an important factor in a sapphire's value.

  

Magic –            Provides spiritual strength

                        Protects from envy and harm

                        Attracts favourable spirits and blessings

                        Encourages wisdom and prophecy       

                        Aids victory over all (star sapphires)

 

Healing –          Balances the endocrine system and reins in overactive energies

                        Calms, regulates and reduces tension in the solar plexus created by fear     

                                     and anxiety

                        Increases powers of personal expression, benefiting the heart and

                        throat chakras

                        Stimulates the higher mind

 

 

Tanzanite Tanzanite is blue, surrounded by a fine hint of purple, and is named after the East African state of Tanzania, the only place in the world where it has been found.  This crystal was only discovered in 1967 in the Merelani Hills near Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania.  Thanks to its unusual aura, it has rapidly become one of the most coveted gemstones in the world. It has become so popular that in October of 2002 the American Gem Trade Association (AGTA) announced that tanzanite had joined zircon and turquoise in the traditional list of birthstones for the month of December. Tanzanite is a blue variety of the gemstone zoisite. It consists of calcium aluminium silicate and is not particularly hard, having a value of 6.5 to 7 on the Mohs scale. For that reason, it should always be worn carefully and never placed in an ultrasonic bath for cleaning or brought into contact with acids. The deep blue of the tanzanite is fantastic, and runs from ultramarine blue to light violet-blue. The most coveted colour is a blue surrounded by a delicate hint of purple. Magic Reveals the extraordinary within the ordinaryAssociated with transmutation and revelationCan disguise the true nature of things Healing Focuses healing energy wherever it is placed, but especially in the throat area.Quickly releases strong pent-up emotionsStimulates intuition and psychic skills

Integrates energy and information from diverse sources to create a new wholeness

 

 

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